Shell-and-tube heat exchangers refer to the mostly common apparatus. They are used for heat exchange and thermochemical processes between various liquids, steams and gases both with and without their aggregate state alteration.
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers appeared in early ХХ century due to the thermal stations requirement for large surface heat exchangers such as condensers and water heaters which operate under relatively high pressure. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are applied as heaters, coolers, condensers and absorbers. Today, as a result of special elaborations taking the operational experience into account their design has become much more sophisticated. During the same time period shell-and-tube heat exchangers started being widely used in oil industry. Mixture heaters and coolers, evaporators and condensers for different fractions of crude oil and associated organic liquids became required for heavy duty operation. Heat exchangers often had to be operated with contaminated liquids at high temperatures and pressures and, therefore, the engineering had to be carried out in such way as to ensure ease of maintenance and cleaning.
Over the years shell-and-tube heat exchangers became the most widely used type of apparatus. This is primarily due to the design reliability and a wide set of version choices for different operating conditions.
The apparatus of this group have both vertical and horizontal arrangements. They are represented by shell-and-tube heat exchangers and absorbers with housing made of graphite-reinforced plastics or constructional graphite treated with special structure. Main operating elements forming the heat exchange surface are different diameter tubes made of graphite-reinforced plastics or constructional graphite treated with special structure.
Tube bundles can be manufactured dismountable. The tubes are fixed into tube-sheets using PTFE tape without applying any corrosion-resisting compounds. The customer can replace the tube by himself.
The aggressive medium is supplied into the tubular space. The inert atmosphere or the aggressive medium (depending on the housing’s material) is supplied into the intertubular space.
The size of the apparatus heat exchange surface depends on its diameter, length and the number of tubes.
The apparatus arrangement can be modified according to the customer’s requirements. Depending on the specifics of a particular process CJSC ROSGRAFIT Group specialists can develop special designs of shell-and-tube heat exchanging apparatus.